|How Ignorance Fuels Science and the Evolution of Knowledge|
|Escrito por Maria Popova|
|Lunes 25 de Junio de 2012 13:16|
"We judge the value of science by the ignorance it defines."
"Science is always wrong," George Bernard Shaw famously proclaimed in a toast to Albert Einstein. "It never solves a problem without creating 10 more."
In the fifth century BC, long before science as we know it existed, Socrates, the very first philosopher, famously observed, "I know one thing, that I know nothing." Some 21 centuries later, while inventing calculus in 1687, Sir Isaac Newton likely knew all there was to know in science at the time — a time when it was possible for a single human brain to hold all of mankind’s scientific knowledge. Fast-forward 40 generations to today, and the average high school student has more scientific knowledge than Newton did at the end of his life. But somewhere along that superhighway of progress, we seem to have developed a kind of fact-fetishism that shackles us to the allure of the known and makes us indifferent to the unknown knowable. Yet it’s the latter — the unanswered questions — that makes science, and life, interesting. That’s the eloquently argued case at the heart of Ignorance: How It Drives Science, in which Stuart Firestein sets out to debunk the popular idea that knowledge follows ignorance, demonstrating instead that it’s the other way around and, in the process, laying out a powerful manifesto for getting the public engaged with science — a public to whom, as Neil deGrasse Tyson recently reminded Senate, the government is accountable in making the very decisions that shape the course of science.
The tools and currencies of our information economy, Firestein points out, are doing little in the way of fostering the kind of question-literacy essential to cultivating curiosity:
Are we too enthralled with the answers these days? Are we afraid of questions, especially those that linger too long? We seem to have come to a phase in civilization marked by a voracious appetite for knowledge, in which the growth of information is exponential and, perhaps more important, its availability easier and faster than ever.*
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... y la soledad suelen provocar desenlaces inesperados.
Nuria, una atractiva psicóloga cubana de cuarenta años, es la mujer del Coronel Arturo Gómez, quien se encuentra al frente de sus tropas en Angola. Ella nunca se imaginó que un breve viaje a Italia, donde acude a dictar una conferencia, cambiaría su vida. Allí, Nuria conoce al profesor Martinelli y los dos se pierden en un juego cargado de erotismo y sensualidad.
A cada encuentro amoroso le seguían cartas eróticas que Nuria pensó había destruido. Nunca pudo suponer que esas cartas caerían en manos de la contrainteligencia cubana.